~ko1 say ‹s.th.›, declare. Introduces direct reported speech / call [...]

Part of Speech verb, transitive
Phonetic Form (i·)ko
Tanema Equivalent ~po
Lovono Equivalent ~pu
    • say ‹s.th.›, declare. Introduces direct reported speech
    • Syntactic Restriction alone
      (Part of) Synonym (for)
      • Example 1169:
        A-ko ae?
        What did you say?
      • Example 1170:
        Ka i-ko: “Eo pon, ive? Ka ai-ve?” Ini i-ko “Mm.” – “Ka menu vele?” I-ko “Menu tae!” I-ko “Tae, i-kae?”
        He said “How's things? Have you given birth?” She said “Yes.” – “But where is the baby?” She said “There is no baby!” He said “What do you mean, there's no baby?”
        Example Comment
        Example URL
      • Example 1171:
        Mwaliko kape i-woi ne teviri peini kuo ponu, awoiu kap’ i-ko “Ia! Takoli! Ia ia, takoli ! ia ia!”
        The boy will strike the canoe's hull, and then he'll go “Hey ho! Push! Hey ho! Push!”
        Example Comment
        future tense
        Example URL
    • call s.th. ‹so and so›
    • Syntactic Restriction qualifying an NP
      • Example 81:
        Na, piene adapa Teanu a-ko ae?
        How is this called in Teanu? [lit. this, in Teanu language, you say what?]
      • Example 1172:
        toñaki pe kiapa li-ko ‘tepakare tilu’
        that sort of ship is called ‘catamaran’
      • Example 1173:
        Tadoe iadapa pon, enga ini – dapa Lovono li-ko ‘Visipure’; ka dapa Teanu li-ko ‘Vilisao’.
        The god in question was called – in the Lovono language, (they say) ‘Fisipure’; in Teanu, ‘Filisao’.
    • tell s.o. to do s.th.; order, suggest that
    • Syntactic Restriction + Irrealis clause, different subject
      • Example 893:
        Ai’ one i-ovei piene Tetevo ka ni-ko u-vagasi ini pon ta.
        My father knows the language of Utupua, I suggest you contact him.
      • Example 1174:
        Pe li-ko u-ke u-te maro etapu!
        But they forbade you from going out!
        Example Comment
        with Prohibitive [etapu](etapu_1)
        Example URL
    • think, believe (that)
    • Syntactic Restriction + realis clause
      (Part of) Synonym (for)
      • Example 1175:
        Li-ko kulumoe iadapa pine na, li-iumu li-romo temaka na.
        This large island, they believed they were the first ones to discover it.
        Example Comment
        the French navigators
      • Example 1176:
        Ka pi-ko aplaka, iula toñaki wopine.
        You think it was a small one? (No!) that anchor was gigantic.
      • Example 1177:
        Ni-ko li-abu dapa ne toñaki tae.
        I don't think they were killed on the ship.
    • want to, be about to
    • Syntactic Restriction + Irrealis clause
      Encyclopedic Info Synt.: Modal attraction: ~ko itself often takes Irrealis, due to attraction (prolepsis) towards the mood of its complement.
      (Part of) Synonym (for)
      • Example 1178:
        iepiene po ne-ko ni-atevo na…
        the story I'm about to tell…
      • Example 1179:
        Wako. Nganae a-ko u-vete?
        Alright. What do you want to say?
        Example URL
      • Example 1180:
        Ne-ko ne-la awis pine iakapa ne-mini tili’ akapa Dr Alex.
        I wish to express our gratitude towards our brother Dr Alex.
      • Example 1181:
        Ngele nga i-ko i-oburo buro ae pon, kape i-obur’ i-le.
        Whoever wants to sing a song, they can go ahead and sing.
        Example URL
      • Example 1182:
        Nganae le-ko l-ajau, i-wene moli teve dapa.
        Whatever they wish to do is easy to them.
        Example Comment
      • Example 1183:
        Da viñevi kula awa dapa li-ko li-anu kava.
        Some women want to drink kava.
      • Example 1184:
        Ne-ko ne-romo tamwase!
        I'd really love to see it!
        Example Comment
        with intensifier

Related entries

  • Heterosemes:
    • ~ko2 introduces direct reported speech / (go) like this: gestural quotative, introducing a gesture or a face expression / introduces indirect reported speech. Functions as an obligatory complementizer ‘(say+) that’ / introduces the content of thought. Functions as an obligatory complementizer, Eng. ‘(think, know, want+) that’ / with the plan or intention to; in order to, so that / as ‹so and so›
  • Is Part of:
    • li-ko so they say…: formula found in narratives, as the narrator reminds the audience that the story originates in hearsay or oral tradition
  • See also:
    • nga li-ko formula used when looking for words: ‘such as’, ‘like’; ‘how should I say’, ‘you know’
    • enga name / type, sort
    • ~ko bwara suppose, believe, think (that) / hope (that)
    • awa ~ko think, believe / want (that)
    • ~ko me1 want to, intend to
    • ~ko kape want, intend to; be about to / want s.o. to do s.th.
    • ~vete utter, say, declare ‹s.th.› / mention ‹s.o., s.th.›, talk about / mean ‹s.th.› / give away ‹s.o.›, denounce publicly / call, convene ‹event, meeting+›
    • ~vodo think, believe (that, ~ko) / hope (that, ~ko) / remember ‹s.o., s.th.›