~ko2 introduces direct reported speech / (go) like this: gestural [...]

Part of Speech 2nd verb, trans.
Phonetic Form (i·)ko
Tanema Equivalent ~po
Lovono Equivalent ~pu
    • introduces direct reported speech
    • Syntactic Restriction serialized after a verb of speech
      Encyclopedic Info Synt.: Equivalent of a Quotative particle. Usually not translated in English.
      • Example 1185:
        Ka i-viñ’ emel’ iape i-ko: “U-wai i-ka!”
        He told his wife (saying) “Paddle this way!”
        Example URL
      • Example 1186:
        Ka i-waivo ñe dapa i-ko: “Wako, kape le-si nga ne.”
        He explained to them (saying) “Alright, here is how you can write.”
      • Example 1187:
        Buro pe li-mede i-ka pon li-ko: “…”
        The song they were singing went like this: “…”
        Example URL
    • (go) like this: gestural quotative, introducing a gesture or a face expression
    • Sense Comment somet
      • Example 1188:
        Aero i-dadai i-ko “—”. Aero, aero pine!
        The fence was going around, it went like this: “—” [Gesture]. It was a giant fence!
    • introduces indirect reported speech. Functions as an obligatory complementizer ‘(say+) that’
    • Syntactic Restriction serialized after a verb of speech
      Encyclopedic Info Synt.: Common after verbs such as ~vete ‘say’, ~viñi ‘tell’, ~watebo ‘ask’, ~atevo ‘narrate’, ~waivo ‘explain’, ~lengi ‘hear’, ~romo ‘see’.
      • Example 1189:
        Ne buka ponu, uie kwate tamana iune, li-vete li-ko piene ponu li-la teve dapa Tukupie.
        In the book, page thirty one, they say (that) the story was recorded from the Tikopians.
      • Example 1190:
        Ka ni-lengi li-ko ka nga iune i-te nga ponu tae.
        I never heard that [lit. they say] anyone stayed there.
        Example Comment
        different subject of ‘hear’ and ‘say’
      • Example 1191:
        Ka ni-lengi ni-ko dapa kula li-te tae.
        I never heard that [lit. never I-heard I-say] there was anyone else there.
        Example Comment
        same subject of ‘hear’ and ‘say’: agreement
      • Example 1192:
        I-ko i-romo abo ne kaipa i-ko pi-tavie we tae.
        He wants to examine your blood to see if you are sick.
    • introduces the content of thought. Functions as an obligatory complementizer, Eng. ‘(think, know, want+) that’
    • Syntactic Restriction serialized after a verb of perception or thought
      • Example 534:
        Ni-vodo ni-ko eo ka uña damiliko iono pi-te wako.
        I hope that you and your children are well.
      • Example 1193:
        I-romo i-ko menu tae.
        She saw (that) there was no baby.
        Example URL
      • Example 1194:
        Basavono ponu li-ovei li-ko toñaki kape i-ka i-la dapa ponu.
        At that moment, they knew that the ship was going to come and rescue them.
      • Example 1195:
        Ene ni-mui ni-ko kape n-ajau nganae kape wako.
        I don't know what to do.
      • Example 1196:
        Kupa, awa kupa i-viane pi-ko u-ro toñaki ponu.
        We really want you to look at that ship over there.
        Example Comment
        serialized to [awa ~viane](LX000057) ‘we want’
    • with the plan or intention to; in order to, so that
    • Syntactic Restriction serialized; somet. followed by me and/or kape
      (Part of) Synonym (for)
      • Example 1197:
        Li-iu dapa li-bei dapa ñe voko li-ko nga uo.
        They would bury them and cover them with stones, [they meant it] like a cairn.
      • Example 1198:
        Ni-tab’ menu ba-ko ba-wo mina moe iakapa na.
        I lifted my child so we could run away from our house.
        Example Comment
        serial pattern
      • Example 1199:
        Ka i-loko voko i-bei ñi i-ko nara idi kape le-l’ le-la.
        He laid some stones above it so nobody could come and steal it.
        Example Comment
        Apprehensional [nara](nara_2)
        Example URL
    • as ‹so and so›
    • Literally saying that (it) is
      Syntactic Restriction + non-verbal predicate
      • Example 1200:
        Li-labu ene li-ko tili' adapa.
        They have adopted me as their brother.

Related entries

  • Heterosemes:
    • ~ko1 say ‹s.th.›, declare. Introduces direct reported speech / call s.th. ‹so and so› / tell s.o. to do s.th.; order, suggest that / think, believe (that) / want to, be about to
  • See also: