kape Irrealis marker, with various contextual interpretations / [...]

Part of Speech modal
Phonetic Form kape
Tanema Equivalent mota
Lovono Equivalent gape
    • Irrealis marker, with various contextual interpretations
      • Gram
    • equiv. of a future: will
      • Example 319:
        “Minga kape ba-le?” I-ko “Mobo.”
        “When will you leave?” – “Tomorrow.”
        Example Comment
        irrealis interpretation
        Example URL
      • Example 1042:
        Kape ne-tabo ne-le metele iote pe kape i-ka na.
        I'll go again next month [the other month that will come].
    • equiv. of a prospective: be about to
      • Example 1043:
        Kata kape le-tetele kape le-pinoe pon ta.
        They were about to start dancing.
        Example URL
      • Example 1044:
        Vitoko teve me kape le-bo.
        They were about to start making (their canoe).
    • equiv. of a deontic: should, be supposed to
      • Example 865:
        Ka telepakau pe na, lek’ iaidi, idi pe li-romo idi tae. Kape le-wamu idi ñe idi.
        In our culture, cousins must not look at each other. They must hide from each other.
        Example Comment
        reciprocal construction
        Example URL
      • Example 1020:
        Kape le-kae?!
        How were they supposed to proceed?!
    • equiv. of a subjunctive
    • Syntactic Restriction espec. in irrealis subordinate clauses
      • Example 1045:
        Toñaki pine pe kape le-ke le-lui ne ngamuli tae.
        It was not the kind of large ships that can go out into the ocean.
      • Example 1046:
        U-le pon etapu! Ña leka kape i-rom' eo!
        Don't go there! Your cousin might see you!
        Example Comment
        with apprehensive [ña](LX000311)
        Example URL
      • Example 1047:
        Mat’ eo nara kape u-wasi ñe idi ’tapu.
        Be careful not to give (the secret) away.
        Example Comment
        with apprehensive [nara](nara_1)
        Example URL
      • Example 1048:
        Nganae pe kape le-la tae.
        They don't need to work. [lit. there isn't anything they have to ‘take’]
    • equiv. of a potential: can
      • Example 738:
        Uk' one tilu, kape ne-vete enga da metae.
        My in-laws, I can't say their names out loud.
      • Example 1049:
        Nga u-le, ata tadoe kap’ i-ejau bas' eo mumule.
        If you go there, the soul of spirits can make your head go crazy.
    • equiv. of a conditional
    • Syntactic Restriction in protasis and/or apodosis
      • Example 1050:
        Ruene ponu, kape nga ngele nga i-bu, kape le-lengi aña ruene pe li-ko.
        It's a special door: whenever someone dies, you'll hear the sound of a door being opened.
      • Example 1051:
        Nga i-abu mata, kape bwara mata ini kilo ñei.
        If he had hit her eyes, she could have turned blind.
        Example Comment
    • equiv. of a habitual aspect
      • Example 46:
        Pon tadoe? Pon tepakola? Kape i-abu idi?
        Is that a god? Is that a giant? Does he kill people?
        Example URL
      • Example 1052:
        Taluaito ini basa beme, kape i-padi basa ini: ne to ne, koro; ne lava tilu, kape bworo. Awoiu kape i-tabo koro pwo mijaka.
        The (heathen) priest had a bald head, which he would paint: white in the middle; black on each side; and then, white a bit again underneath.
    • equiv. of a generic present, used in instructions
    • Syntactic Restriction espec. with generic subject le-
      Sense Comment hence
      • Example 1053:
        basavono pe da-tilu kape la-kila da
        when there is a wedding [lit. when two people follow/marry each other]
      • Example 1054:
        Kape le-toe langasuo peini, ka nengele wamitaka.
        You cut out the big (canoe) rail, and then the smaller pieces.
        Example Comment
        generic present with generic subject [le-](le-_1)
    • indicates epistemic doubt or approximation
      • Example 1055:
        Ewe, kape nga ponu.
        Yes, that must be it.
        Example Comment
        predicative, future marked

Related entries

  • See also:
    • ka vitoko kape be about to; almost / nearly, almost
    • kata kape Prospective aspect: be about to; almost
    • me kape Purpose subordinator: in order to, so that / (want) that (V): equivalent of a subjunctive / until
    • ~ko kape want, intend to; be about to / want s.o. to do s.th.
    • ~ovei1 know ‹s.o., s.th.›; be aware (that, ~ko) / understand, recognise / know how to; hence be able (to, pe) / be allowed to / may (do V) / be prone (to, pe); do V habitually; used to (do)